Planet Earth is covered with 70 percent of water and up to 60 percent in human body. Due to commonness of water it is taken for granted and when studied it will be found with variety of strange properties compared to other liquids. The reason behind floating of ice is, less density in liquid form than in solid form along with its high peculiar heat capacity profile, which has extreme impact on ocean currents and climate; and it can stand liquid at extremely cold temperatures.
Additionally, there are 17 forms of water ice like ordinary water, water vapour or stream with two proposed forms of super-cooled liquid water. Evidences found by geophysicist Chuanlong Lin, Jesse Smith, Stanislav Sinogeikin, and Guoyin Shen from Carnegie which were long-theorized, with the difficulty to see low density liquid phase of water. After measuring the normal density of water is one gram of water molecules per each cubic centimetre.
The existence of liquid water found both in lower and higher densities with the help of studies of anomalies in water’s behaviour when compared to previous standard. Phase diagram which each molecule have, is a sort of chart specifying how its majority molecular structure changes form under different temperature and pressure states. Phase diagram parts are low density water is thought to occur that is notoriously difficult to explore, termed as so-called water’s no man’s land just because they need a path through a series of very specific, very difficult states.
But the team was able to observe and research at low-density water as an intermediate phase using a newly developed rapid-decompression technique to turn high-pressure crystalline phase ice-VIII to the diamond like-ice at a temperature between about 207 and 163 degrees Fahrenheit. They undergone to sophisticated x-rays analysis confirmed observation of the low-density liquid water phase, which only lasted for about half a second at 163 degrees Fahrenheit.
At moderate speeds when ice-VIII was decompressed formation of other phases of ice came into action and indicating that the speed of decompression is main key for observing the low density liquid water phase. The new developed; very fast decompression process was the key to this extraordinary observation of low density liquid water as an intermediate between crystalline phases according Shen.